title: Goroutine


You can think of Goroutines as application-level threads and they are similar to OS Threads in many ways. Just as OS Threads are context-switched on and off a core, Goroutines are context-switched on and off an M.


type g struct {
    // Stack parameters.
    // stack describes the actual stack memory: [stack.lo, stack.hi).
    // stackguard0 is the stack pointer compared in the Go stack growth prologue.
    // It is stack.lo+StackGuard normally, but can be StackPreempt to trigger a preemption.
    // stackguard1 is the stack pointer compared in the C stack growth prologue.
    // It is stack.lo+StackGuard on g0 and gsignal stacks.
    // It is ~0 on other goroutine stacks, to trigger a call to morestackc (and crash).
    stack stack // offset known to runtime/cgo
    stackguard0 uintptr // offset known to liblink
    stackguard1 uintptr // offset known to liblink
    _panic *_panic // innermost panic - offset known to liblink
    _defer *_defer // innermost defer
    m *m // current m; offset known to arm liblink
    sched gobuf
    syscallsp uintptr // if status==Gsyscall, syscallsp = sched.sp to use during gc
    syscallpc uintptr // if status==Gsyscall, syscallpc = sched.pc to use during gc
    stktopsp uintptr // expected sp at top of stack, to check in traceback
    // param is a generic pointer parameter field used to pass
    // values in particular contexts where other storage for the
    // parameter would be difficult to find. It is currently used
    // in three ways:
    // 1. When a channel operation wakes up a blocked goroutine, it sets param to
    // point to the sudog of the completed blocking operation.
    // 2. By gcAssistAlloc1 to signal back to its caller that the goroutine completed
    // the GC cycle. It is unsafe to do so in any other way, because the goroutine's
    // stack may have moved in the meantime.
    // 3. By debugCallWrap to pass parameters to a new goroutine because allocating a
    // closure in the runtime is forbidden.
    param unsafe.Pointer
    atomicstatus atomic.Uint32
    stackLock uint32 // sigprof/scang lock; TODO: fold in to atomicstatus
    goid uint64
    schedlink guintptr
    waitsince int64 // approx time when the g become blocked
    waitreason waitReason // if status==Gwaiting
    preempt bool // preemption signal, duplicates stackguard0 = stackpreempt
    preemptStop bool // transition to _Gpreempted on preemption; otherwise, just deschedule
    preemptShrink bool // shrink stack at synchronous safe point
    // asyncSafePoint is set if g is stopped at an asynchronous
    // safe point. This means there are frames on the stack
    // without precise pointer information.
    asyncSafePoint bool
    paniconfault bool // panic (instead of crash) on unexpected fault address
    gcscandone bool // g has scanned stack; protected by _Gscan bit in status
    throwsplit bool // must not split stack
    // activeStackChans indicates that there are unlocked channels
    // pointing into this goroutine's stack. If true, stack
    // copying needs to acquire channel locks to protect these
    // areas of the stack.
    activeStackChans bool
    // parkingOnChan indicates that the goroutine is about to
    // park on a chansend or chanrecv. Used to signal an unsafe point
    // for stack shrinking.
    parkingOnChan atomic.Bool
    raceignore int8 // ignore race detection events
    sysblocktraced bool // StartTrace has emitted EvGoInSyscall about this goroutine
    tracking bool // whether we're tracking this G for sched latency statistics
    trackingSeq uint8 // used to decide whether to track this G
    trackingStamp int64 // timestamp of when the G last started being tracked
    runnableTime int64 // the amount of time spent runnable, cleared when running, only used when tracking
    sysexitticks int64 // cputicks when syscall has returned (for tracing)
    traceseq uint64 // trace event sequencer
    tracelastp puintptr // last P emitted an event for this goroutine
    lockedm muintptr
    sig uint32
    writebuf []byte
    sigcode0 uintptr
    sigcode1 uintptr
    sigpc uintptr
    gopc uintptr // pc of go statement that created this goroutine
    ancestors *[]ancestorInfo // ancestor information goroutine(s) that created this goroutine (only used if debug.tracebackancestors)
    startpc uintptr // pc of goroutine function
    racectx uintptr
    waiting *sudog // sudog structures this g is waiting on (that have a valid elem ptr); in lock order
    cgoCtxt []uintptr // cgo traceback context
    labels unsafe.Pointer // profiler labels
    timer *timer // cached timer for time.Sleep
    selectDone atomic.Uint32 // are we participating in a select and did someone win the race?
    // goroutineProfiled indicates the status of this goroutine's stack for the
    // current in-progress goroutine profile
    goroutineProfiled goroutineProfileStateHolder
    // Per-G GC state
    // gcAssistBytes is this G's GC assist credit in terms of
    // bytes allocated. If this is positive, then the G has credit
    // to allocate gcAssistBytes bytes without assisting. If this
    // is negative, then the G must correct this by performing
    // scan work. We track this in bytes to make it fast to update
    // and check for debt in the malloc hot path. The assist ratio
    // determines how this corresponds to scan work debt.
    gcAssistBytes int64

Github source - g


type stack struct {
    lo uintptr
    hi uintptr

Go stack structGo stack functions